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Whoa..Hey all, call me Angah..this blog is created by the need of urgency of the assignment for this 2nd, I hope all of you can give support for me..feel free to follow & I will follow u back :)

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Monday, 4 June 2012

Introduction to HTML

What is HTML?

HTML is a computer language devised to allow website creation. These websites can then be viewed by anyone else connected to the Internet. It is relatively easy to learn, with the basics being accessible to most people in one sitting; and quite powerful in what it allows you to create. It is constantly undergoing revision and evolution to meet the demands and requirements of the growing Internet audience under the direction of the » W3C, the organization charged with designing and maintaining the language. The definition of HTML is Hyper Text Markup Language.

Hypertext is the method by which you move around on the web — by clicking on special text called hyperlinks which bring you to the next page. The fact that it is hyper just means it is not linear — i.e. you can go to any place on the Internet whenever you want by clicking on links — there is no set order to do things in. Markup is what HTML tags do to the text inside them. They mark it as a certain type of text (italicized text, for example). HTML is a Language, as it has code-words and syntax like any other language.

How does it work?

HTML consists of a series of short codes typed into a text-file by the site author — these are the tags. The text is then saved as a html file, and viewed through a browser, like Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. This browser reads the file and translates the text into a visible form, hopefully rendering the page as the author had intended. Writing your own HTML entails using tags correctly to create your vision. You can use anything from a rudimentary text-editor to a powerful graphical editor to create HTML pages.

What are the tags up to?

The tags are what separate normal text from HTML code. You might know them as the words between the <angle-brackets>. They allow all the cool stuff like images and tables and stuff, just by telling your browser what to render on the page. Different tags will perform different functions. The tags themselves don’t appear when you view your page through a browser, but their effects do. The simplest tags do nothing more than apply formatting to some text, like this:

<b>These words will be bold</b>, and these will not.

In the example above, the <b> tags were wrapped around some text, and their effect will be that the contained text will be bolded when viewed through an ordinary web browser.
If you want to see a list of a load of tags to see what’s ahead of you, look at this tag reference. Learning the tags themselves is dealt with in the next section of this website, My First Site.

Is there anything HTML can’t do?

Of course, but since making websites became more popular and needs increased many other supporting languages have been created to allow new stuff to happen, plus HTML is modified every few years to make way for improvements. Cascading Style sheets are used to control how your pages are presented, and make pages more accessible. Basic special effects and interaction is provided by JavaScript, which adds a lot of power to basic HTML. Most of this advanced stuff is for later down the road, but when using all of these technologies together, you have a lot of power at your disposal.

TelNet and FTP. Huh, what are those things?

What is Telnet?

Telnet is a protocol that allows you to connect to remote computers (called hosts) over a TCP/IP network (such as the Internet). You use software called a telnet client on your computer to make a connection to a telnet server (i.e., the remote host). Once your telnet client establishes a connection to the remote host, your client becomes a virtual terminal, allowing you to communicate with the remote host from your computer. In most cases, you'll need to log into the remote host, which requires that you have an account on that system. Occasionally, you can log in as guest or public without having an account. Telnet clients are available for all major operating systems. Command-line telnet clients are built into most versions of Mac OS X, Windows, Unix, and Linux.

To know how to use TELNET, click this link : 

What is FTP?

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard Internet protocol for transmitting files between computers on the Internet. Like the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which transfers displayable Web pages and related files, and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), which transfers e-mail, FTP is an application protocol that uses the Internet's TCP/IP protocols. FTP is commonly used to transfer Web page files from their creator to the computer that acts as their server for everyone on the Internet. It's also commonly used to download programs and other files to your computer from other servers.

As a user, you can use FTP with a simple command line interface (for example, from the Windows MS-DOS Prompt window) or with a commercial program that offers a graphical user interface. Your Web browser can also make FTP requests to download programs you select from a Web page. Using FTP, you can also update (delete, rename, move, and copy) files at a server. You need to logon to an FTP server. However, publicly available files are easily accessed using anonymous FTP.

Basic FTP support is usually provided as part of a suite of programs that come with TCP/IP. However, any FTP client program with a graphical user interface usually must be downloaded from the company that makes it.

Take a peek on how the usage of FTP in this link :

Evevrybody Use Email, right?

What is email?

Electronic mail, commonly known as email or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. Modern email operates across the Internet or other computer networks. Some early email systems required that the author and the recipient both be online at the same time, in common with instant messaging. Today's email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be online simultaneously; they need connect only briefly, typically to an email server, for as long as it takes to send or receive messages.
An email message consists of three components, the message envelope, the message header, and the message body. The message header contains control information, including, minimally, an originator's email address and one or more recipient addresses. Usually descriptive information is also added, such as a subject header field and a message submission date/time stamp.

How does email work?

Here is the illustrated explanation :

What is MIME?

Originally a text-only (7-bit ASCII and others) communications medium, email was extended to carry multi-media content attachments, a process standardized in RFC 2045 through 2049. Collectively, these RFCs have come to be called Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME).

Electronic mail predates the inception of the Internet, and was in fact a crucial tool in creating it,[2] but the history of modern, global Internet email services reaches back to the early ARPANET. Standards for encoding email messages were proposed as early as 1973 (RFC 561). Conversion from ARPANET to the Internet in the early 1980s produced the core of the current services. An email sent in the early 1970s looks quite similar to a basic text message sent on the Internet today.

Network-based email was initially exchanged on the ARPANET in extensions to the File Transfer Protocol (FTP), but is now carried by the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), first published as Internet standard 10 (RFC 821) in 1982. In the process of transporting email messages between systems, SMTP communicates delivery parameters using a message envelope separate from the message (header and body) itself.

What is spamming?

Email spam, also known as junk email or unsolicited bulk email (UBE), is a subset of electronic spam involving nearly identical messages sent to numerous recipients by email. Definitions of spam usually include the aspects that email is unsolicited and sent in bulk. One subset of UBE is UCE (unsolicited commercial email). The opposite of "spam", email which one wants, is called "ham", usually when referring to a message's automated analysis (such as Bayesian filtering). Like other forms of unwanted bulk messaging, it is named for Spam luncheon meat by way of a Monty Python sketch in which Spam is depicted as ubiquitous and unavoidable.

Sunday, 3 June 2012

Web Searching

In this post, i would like to tell about WEB SEARCHING.

Short for Web browser, a software application used to locate, retrieve and also display content on the World Wide Web, including Web pages, images, video and other files. As a client/server model, the browser is the client run on a computer that contacts the Web server and requests information. The Web server sends the information back to the Web browser which displays the results on the computer or other Internet-enabled device that supports a browser.
Today's browsers are fully-functional software suites that can interpret and display HTML Web pages, applications, JavaScript, AJAX and other content hosted on Web servers. Many browsers offer plug-ins which extend the capabilities of a browser so it can display multimedia information (including sound and video), or the browser can be used to perform tasks such as videoconferencing, to design web pages or add anti-phishing filters and other security features to the browser.
The most popular browsers are Microsoft Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, Apple Safari and Opera. While most commonly use to access information on the web, a browser can also be used to access information hosted on web servers in private networks.  
Also, there are a number of browsers that are designed to access the Web using a mobile device. These mobile browsers ("Microbrowser") are optimized to display Web content on smaller mobile device screens and to also perform efficiently on these devices which have far less computing power and memory capacity as Desktop or laptop computers. Mobile browsers are typically "stripped down" versions of Web browsers and offer fewer features in order to run well on mobile devices.

Various Types of web browser :

What is search engine?

A search engine is a web site that collects and organizes content from all over the internet. Those wishing to locate something would enter a query about what they'd like to find and the engine provides links to content that matches what they want.

Types of search engine :

What is a web directory?
A web directory or link directory is a directory on the World Wide Web. It specializes in linking to other web sites and categorizing those links. A web directory is not a search engine and does not display lists of web pages based on keywords; instead, it lists web sites by category and subcategory. Most web directory entries are also not found by web crawlers but by humans. The categorization is usually based on the whole web site rather than one page or a set of keywords, and sites are often limited to inclusion in only a few categories. Web directories often allow site owners to submit their site for inclusion, and have editors review submissions for fitness.

Tuesday, 29 May 2012

What is Internet?

What is internet?

The internet in simple terms is a network of the interlinked computer networking worldwide, which is accessible to the general public. These interconnected computers work by transmitting data through a special type of packet switching which is known as the IP or the internet protocol.

Internet is such a huge network of several different interlinked networks relating to the business, government, academic, and even smaller domestic networks, therefore internet is known as the network of all the other networks. These networks enable the internet to be used for various important functions which include the several means of communications like the file transfer, the online chat and even the sharing of the documents and web sites on the WWW, or the World Wide Web.

The use of IP in the Internet is the integral part of the network, as they provide the services of the internet, through different layers organization through the IP data packets. There are other protocols that are the sub-classes of the IP itself, like the TCP, and the HTTP.

Internet infrastructures :

Internet Protocol (IP) :

-  The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol used for relaying datagrams (also known as network packets) across an internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite. Responsible for routing packets across network boundaries, it is the primary protocol that establishes the Internet.

IP is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite and has the task of delivering datagrams from the source host to the destination host solely based on the addresses. For this purpose, IP defines datagram structures that encapsulate the data to be delivered. It also defines addressing methods that are used to label the datagram source and destination.

Historically, IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original Transmission Control Program introduced by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in 1974, the other being the connection-oriented Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The Internet Protocol Suite is therefore often referred to as TCP/IP.

Function of IP :

- The Internet Protocol is responsible for addressing hosts and routing datagrams (packets) from a source host to the destination host across one or more IP networks. For this purpose the Internet Protocol defines an addressing system that has two functions: identifying hosts and providing a logical location service. This is accomplished by defining standard datagrams and a standard addressing system.

Each datagram has two components, a header and a payload. The IP header is tagged with the source IP address, destination IP address, and other meta-data needed to route and deliver the datagram. The payload is the data to be transported. This process of nesting data payloads in a packet with a header is called encapsulation.

Perhaps the most complex aspects of IP are IP addressing and routing. Addressing refers to how end hosts are assigned IP addresses and how subnetworks of IP host addresses are divided and grouped. IP routing is performed by all hosts, but most importantly by routers, which typically use either interior gateway protocols (IGPs) or external gateway protocols (EGPs) to decide how to move datagrams among networks.

IP routing is also common in local networks. For example, Ethernet switches sold today support IP multicast.  These switches use IP addresses and Internet Group Management Protocol for control of the multicast routing but use MAC addresses for the actual routing.

Wireless Technology

What is Wireless Computer Networking?

Wireless networks utilize radio waves and/or microwaves to maintain communication channels between computers. Wireless networking is a more modern alternative to wired networking that relies on copper and/or fiber optic cabling between network devices.
A wireless network offers advantages and disadvantages compared to a wired network. Advantages of wireless include mobility and elimination of unsightly cables. Disadvantages of wireless include the potential for radio interference due to weather, other wireless devices, or obstructions like walls.
Wireless is rapidly gaining in popularity for both home and business networking. Wireless technology continues to improve, and the cost of wireless products continues to decrease. Popular wireless local area networking (WLAN) products conform to the 802.11 "Wi-Fi" standards. The gear a person needs to build wireless networks includes network adapters (NICs), access points (APs), and routers.

Devices commonly used wireless technology :

1) Portable computers.
2) Desktop computers.
3) PDAs.
4) Cellulars phones.
5) GPS.

Types of wireless :

A wireless network joins two or more than two computers by means of communication without using any wires. Wireless Networks utilizes spread-spectrum or OFDM depends on the technology which is using .Wireless network enable a user to move about within a wide coverage area and still be associated to the network. There are different types of wireless networking such as wide area network, local area network and personal area network but the most common are of two.

WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network)
WLANs provide wireless network contact using radio signal instead of traditional network cabling and built by joining a device called AP through which a user converse with the AP using a wireless network. WLAN also network security because it relics an important issue for WLANs. The WEP technology used in WLAN elevate the rank of security. WLANs have expanded well-built status in a different kind of markets during the last seven years and set up to offer wireless connectivity within a limited exposure area which may be a hospital, a university, the airport, health care providers or a gas plant. WLAN is providing highest data-transfer rate with 802.11 terminologies. Today WLANs are fetching more usually recognized as a general-purpose connectivity substitute for a wide array of business customers. WLANs offering various benefit for user such as mobility, condensed Cost-of-Ownership, installation speed and flexibility and scalability. The technology used in WLANs is Spread Spectrum developed by the military offer secure and reliable services. Frequency-hopping spread-spectrum maintains a single logical channel and Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum offer chip pattern to make it more effective and infrared technology. Wireless LAN adapters are necessary for regular computer platforms. The benefits of WLAN  are high Range and coverage, Throughput, Mulitpath Effects, Integrity, Interoperability with Wired Infrastructure, Interoperability with Wireless Infrastructure, Interference and Coexistence, Simplicity and Ease of Use, Security, Cost, Scalability and , Safety which makes a wireless network in real a great platform.

WMAN (Wireless Metropolitan Area Network)
Fast communications of network within the vicinity of a metropolitan area is called WMAN, that put up an entire city or other related geographic area and can span up to 50km. WMAN designed for a larger geographical area than a LAN. The standard of MAN is DQDB which cover up to 30 miles with the speed of 34 Mbit/s to 155 Mbit/s.1t is more common in schools, colleges, and public services support a high-speed network backbone. WMAN is a certified name by the IEEE 802.16 that functioning on Broadband for its wireless metropolitan. WMAN have air interface and a single-carrier scheme intended to activate in the 10-66 GHz spectrum, supports incessantly unreliable transfer levels at many certified frequencies. WMAN opens the door for the creation and Provide high-speed Internet access to business subscribers.It can handle thousands of user stations with prevents collisions and support legacy voice systems, voice over IP, TCP/IP. WMAN offer different applications with different QoS requirements.The technology of WMAN consist of ATM, FDDI, and SMDS. WiMAX is a term used for Wireless metropolitan area network and plinth on the IEEE 802.16.

Protocol and Cabling

A protocol is a set of rules that governs the communications between computers on a network. In order for two computers to talk to each other, they must be speaking the same language. Many different types of network protocols and standards are required to ensure that your computer (no matter which operating system, network card, or application you are using) can communicate with another computer located on the next desk or half-way around the world. The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model defines seven layers of networking protocols. The complexity of these layers is beyond the scope of this tutorial; however, they can be simplified into four layers to help identify some of the protocols with which you should be familiar.

OSI Layer
Common Protocols
HTTP | FTP | SMTP | DNS | Telnet
Data Link
           OSI model related to common network protocols

The original Ethernet standard was developed in 1983 and had a maximum speed of 10 Mbps (phenomenal at the time) over coaxial cable. The Ethernet protocol allows for bus, star, or tree topologies, depending on the type of cables used and other factors. This heavy coaxial cabling was expensive to purchase, install, and maintain, and very difficult to retrofit into existing facilities.
The current standards are now built around the use of twisted pair wire. Common twisted pair standards are 10BaseT, 100BaseT, and 1000BaseT. The number (10, 100, 1000) ands for the speed of transmission (10/100/1000 megabits per second); the "Base" stands for "baseband" meaning it has full control of the wire on a single frequency; and the "T" stands for "twisted pair" cable. Fiber cable can also be used at this level in 10BaseFL.

Fast Ethernet
The Fast Ethernet protocol supports transmission up to 100 Mbps. Fast Ethernet requires the use of different, more expensive network concentrators/hubs and network interface cards. In addition, category 5 twisted pair or fiber optic cable is necessary. Fast Ethernet standards include:
  • 100BaseT - 100 Mbps over 2-pair category 5 or better UTP cable.
  • 100BaseFX - 100 Mbps over fiber cable.
  • 100BaseSX -100 Mbps over multimode fiber cable.
  • 100BaseBX - 100 Mbps over single mode fiber cable.
Ethernet Protocol Summary

Twisted Pair, Coaxial, Fiber
10 Mbps
Fast Ethernet
Twisted Pair, Fiber
100 Mbps
Gigabit Ethernet
Twisted Pair, Fiber
1000 Mbps

What is Network Cabling?
Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another. There are several types of cable which are commonly used with LANs. In some cases, a network will utilize only one type of cable, other networks will use a variety of cable types. The type of cable chosen for a network is related to the network's topology, protocol, and size. Understanding the characteristics of different types of cable and how they relate to other aspects of a network is necessary for the development of a successful network.
  • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable
  • Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable
  • Coaxial Cable
  • Fiber Optic Cable
  • Cable Installation Guides
  • Wireless LANs
  • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable
Twisted pair cabling comes in two varieties: shielded and unshielded. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is the most popular and is generally the best option for school networks.

The quality of UTP may vary from telephone-grade wire to extremely high-speed cable. The cable has four pairs of wires inside the jacket. Each pair is twisted with a different number of twists per inch to help eliminate interference from adjacent pairs and other electrical devices. The tighter the twisting, the higher the supported transmission rate and the greater the cost per foot. The EIA/TIA (Electronic Industry Association/Telecommunication Industry Association) has established standards of UTP and rated six categories of wire (additional categories are emerging).

When running cable, it is best to follow a few simple rules:
  • Always use more cable than you need. Leave plenty of slack.
  • Test every part of a network as you install it. Even if it is brand new, it may have problems that will be difficult to isolate later.
  • Stay at least 3 feet away from fluorescent light boxes and other sources of electrical interference.
  • If it is necessary to run cable across the floor, cover the cable with cable protectors.
  • Label both ends of each cable.
  • Use cable ties (not tape) to keep cables in the same location together.
Advantages of wireless networks:
  • Mobility - With a laptop computer or mobile device, access can be available throughout a school, at the mall, on an airplane, etc. More and more businesses are also offering free WiFi access ("Hot spots").
  • Fast setup - If your computer has a wireless adapter, locating a wireless network can be as simple as clicking "Connect to a Network" -- in some cases, you will connect automatically to networks within range.
  • Cost - Setting up a wireless network can be much more cost effective than buying and installing cables.
  • Expandability - Adding new computers to a wireless network is as easy as turning the computer on (as long as you do not exceed the maximum number of devices).
Disadvantages of wireless networks:
  • Security - Be careful. Be vigilant. Protect your sensitive data with backups, isolated private networks, strong encryption and passwords, and monitor network access traffic to and from your wireless network.
  • Interference - Because wireless networks use radio signals and similar techniques for transmission, they are susceptible to interference from lights and electronic devices.
  • Inconsistent connections - How many times have you hears "Wait a minute, I just lost my connection?" Because of the interference caused by electrical devices and/or items blocking the path of transmission, wireless connections are not nearly as stable as those through a dedicated cable.
  • Speed - The transmission speed of wireless networks is improving; however, faster options (such as gigabit Ethernet) are available via cables. If you are only using wireless for internet access, the actual internet connection for your home or school is generally slower than the wireless network devices, so that connection is the bottleneck. If you are also moving large amounts of data around a private network, a cabled connection will enable that work to proceed much faster.

Networking Hardware

I'm gonna tell you about network hardware. I will be focused on five networking hardware that is RepeatersHubsBridgesSwitches and Routers.


- Repeaters are simple two-port signal amplifiers. They are used in a bus topology to extend the maximum distance that can be spanned on a cable run. The strength of the signal is boosted as it travels down the wire. A repeater will receive a digital signal on one of its ports, amplify it, and transmit it out the other side. A repeater is like a typical home stereo amplifier. The amp takes the signal it receives from the CD, tape deck, etc., and amplifies the signal and sends it on its way to the speakers. If the signal is a brand new Alanis Morisett CD, it simply boosts the signal and sends it on its way. If it's an old Grateful Dead concert tape that is inaudible from the amount of background hiss, it happily boosts this signal as well and sends it on its way. Repeaters function similar to stereo amplifiers. They simply boost whatever they receive and send it on its way. Unfortunately the signal they receive could be a good frame of data, a bad frame of data, or even background noise. A repeater does not discern data quality; it simply looks at each of the individual digital pulses and amplifies them.

Repeaters access point


Hubs are probably the most common piece of network hardware after network interface cards. Physically, they are boxes of varying sizes that have multiple female RJ-45 connectors. Each connector is designed to accept one twisted-pair cable outfitted with a male RJ-45 connector. This twisted-pair cable is then used to connect a single server or workstation to the hub. Hubs are essentially multi-port repeaters that support twisted-pair cables in a star typology. Each node communicates with the hub, which in turn amplifies the signal and transmits it on its remaining ports. As with a repeater, hubs work at the electrical level. Because hubs have no way to determine if a frame is good or bad, they should be looked at, when you design your network typology, as functionally identical to repeaters.

Various types of hubs


 Bridge looks a lot like a repeater; it is a small box with two network connectors that attach to two separate portions of the network. A bridge incorporates the functionality of a repeater (signal amplification), but it actually looks at the frames of data, which is a great benefit. A common bridge is nearly identical to a repeater except for the indicator lights, as shown in figure below. A forward light flashes whenever the bridge needs to pass traffic from one collision domain to another.


Bridges networking


Switches are the marriage of hub and bridge technology. They resemble stackable hubs in appearance, having multiple RJ-45 connectors for connecting network systems. Instead of being a dumb amplifier like a hub, however, switches function as though they have a little miniature bridge built into each port. A switch will keep track of the MAC addresses attached to each of its ports and direct traffic destined for a certain address only to the port to which it is attached.

Network switch


A router is a multi-port device that makes decisions on how to handle a frame, based on protocol and network address. To truly understand what this means we must first look at what a protocol is and how it works. Up until now we've been happily communicating using the media access control address assigned to our networking devices. Our systems have used this number to contact other systems and transmit information as required.

How routers work.

Wednesday, 21 March 2012

That Awkward Moment When Updating Blog

The post title say 'awkward' , huh? Naaahh..i'm just goofing around about that 'awkward' thingy. There are nothing awkward happen when I update my blog, seriously.. That post title is just for grabbing readers attention..haha.

To be truth, I'm kind off addicted to this blog updating. Everyday, when I am at my room, I will check out my blog few times a day. 

Updating blog for education purpose, I felt like a teacher that teach students new things...doesn't you feel the same way when you update something educational and useful to others? I'm keep wondering, what kind of teacher that I would be in the future? *wondering 

This post is just for fun only, check my latest update on what is going on in my class, in my next post. See u guys later. Do rate and comment, ok peeps? :)

Friday, 16 March 2012

Network Operating System for Week 3

Hear thee, hear thee.. :)

Hey, I'm, the post is about our 3rd class for this course..I will tell you about Network Operating System ( NOS ) and also about the in-class presentation that we have to do on that day. Seriously, I do not expected any presentation on that day, but never mind, it already finished and it went out great..hehe..three cheers for me and my group, HIP,HIP,HIP..HOORAY...HOORAY...HOORAY..!! :)

Network Operating System

Okay, we are done with the cheering stuff, now to get serious.. First, I will tell you about Network Operating System ( NOS ). What is meant by NOS?

NOS is the software that runs on a server and enables the server to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions. The network operating system is designed to allow shared file and printer access among multiple computers in a network, typically a local area network (LAN), a private network or to other networks. The most popular network operating systems are Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Microsoft Windows Server 2008, UNIX, Linux, Mac OS X, and Novell NetWare.

So, that is the meaning and the functions of NOS. Now, I will tell about the types of NOS. There are two types of NOS; peer-to-peer and client/server types.

A short video on peer-to-peer and client/server networks

Peer-to-Peer :

In a peer-to-peer network operating system users are allowed to share resources and files located on their computers and access shared resources from others. This system is not based with having a file server or centralized management source. A peer-to-peer network sets all connected computers equal; they all share the same abilities to utilize resources available on the network.

AppleShare used for networking connecting Apple products.
Windows for Workgroups used for networking peer-to-peer windows computers.

1) Ease of setup.
2) Less hardware needed, no server needs to be purchased.

1) No central location for storage.
2) Lack of security that a client/server type offers.

Client/Server :

Client/server network operating systems allow the network to centralize functions and applications in one or more dedicated file servers. The server is the center of the system, allowing access to resources and instituting security. The network operating system provides the mechanism to integrate all the components on a network to allow multiple users to simultaneously share the same resources regardless of physical location.

Novell Netware
Windows Server

1) Centralized servers are more stable.
2) Security is provided through the server.
3) New technology and hardware can be easily integrated into the system.
4) Servers are able to be accessed remotely from different locations and types of systems.

1) Cost of buying and running a server are high.
2) Dependence on a central location for operation.
3) Requires regular maintenance and updates.

Okay, I think that is all about NOS types, functions, advantages and disadvantages. So, here, I also want to tell about our unexpected in-class presentation :)

My group have five peoples including me, my friends, Nazrin, Khai, Mamat and Anuar are such a big help in my group especially Nazrin. :) Our lecturer, En. Razak told us to pick our own topic and then, we took "Gateways" as our topic for the presentation. We found it is really hard to find information on gateways, so hard, but we tried our best and finally the presentation slide is done. YEAY..!!!! :)

This is the video on how to find IP address for your gateways, hope it help :)

A network gateway is an internetworking system capable of joining together two networks that use different base protocols. A network gateway can be implemented completely in software, completely in hardware, or as a combination of both. Depending on the types of protocols they support, network gateways can operate at any level of the OSI model. Because a network gateway, by definition, appears at the edge of a network, related capabilities like firewalls tend to be integrated with it. On home networks, a broadband router typically serves as the network gateway although ordinary computers can also be configured to perform equivalent functions.

Advantages :

1) Can translate information between different networks data formats or network architecture.
2) Most gateways operate at the application layer.
3) Can also be operated on network or session layer.

Disadvantages :

1. Gateways require greater processing limits due to protocol conversion.
2. They are slower than other network devices.
3. Installation and configuration of Gateway is more difficult, therefore requires special technicians.
4. It is more expensive than other devices.

Okay, I'm done. That all for now, see all of you in my next post. Do check in often, okay? Hope all of the blog entry notes will help all of you in understanding more on telecommunication & networking, okay? Thank you :)

Friday, 9 March 2012

It Is All About Networking

In our 2nd class, we learn about Network Classification and Network Topology. When I learn about network classification, I get to know two more network types that are Wide Area Network (WAN) and Metropolitan Area Network. All this time I only know about Local Area Network (LAN), shame on me, huh? :(

Lets me tell you about these three types of network classification :

1) Local Area Network : 
- These connect over a relatively small geographical are, typically connecting computers within a single  office or building. In most cases they connect to a common electronic connection- commonly known as a network backbone.  LAN's can connect to other networks either directly or through a WAN or MAN. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings. However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves.  Most LANs connect workstations  and personal computers . 

This is Local Area Network (LAN) diagram

2) Wide Area Network :
- These connect networks over a large geographical area, such as between different buildings, towns or even countries. A wide area network (WAN ) is a geographically dispersed telecommunications network . The term distinguishes a broader telecommunication structure from a local area network (LAN). A wide area network may be privately owned or rented, but the term usually connotes the inclusion of public (shared user) networks.

This is a Wide Area Network (WAN) diagram

3) Metropolitan Area Networks :
- These connect networks around a town or city. it is smaller than a WAN, but larger4 than a LAN. A data network designed for a town or city. In terms of geographic breadth, MANs are larger than local-area networks (LANs) , but smaller than wide-area networks (WANs) . MANs are usually characterized by very high-speed connections using fiber optical cable  or other digital media.

A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) diagram

Enough with the network types, I would like you all to know about Network Topology. A small dialogue I created :)

Angah (Me) : Hey friends, let me introduce you to Network Topology.
Friends : Network Topology? Is it something or someone? *they were clueless...
NET. Topology : Hye all, I'm Net. Topology. Lets me tell all of you about myself, okay?

About Me (Network Topology)
- In computer networking, topology refers to the layout of connected devices. Think of a topology as a network's virtual shape or structure. This shape does not necessarily correspond to the actual physical layout of the devices on the network. 
- Network topologies are categorized into the following basic types :
      ~ bus
      ~ ring
      ~ star
      ~ tree
      ~ mesh 

Different types of network topologies

- Topologies remain an important part of network design theory. You can probably build a home or small business computer network without understanding the difference between a bus design and a star design, but becoming familiar with the standard topologies gives you a better understanding of important networking concepts like hubs, broadcasts, and routes.

Okay, THE END for the story of network topology and it also THE END for this entry. Thats all from me, hope all of you gain something new about networking. Do keep in touch, spread the word, spread the love, spread this BLOG... Merci beaucoup monsiuer et madamme moiselle :) *french language

Tuesday, 6 March 2012

Adventure Into The World Of I.T

Okay, this 2nd entry is about my first class for Telecommunication & Networking .. Fuuhhh..a long name for a subject right, it suit it name because it has a long history and gave big impact in our lives..We would lost connection without the presence of these Telecom or all agree, right?


Telephone is one example of Telecommunication :)

Lets the real class begin, in our 1st class, we learned about data transmission, types of transmission and also the components.

1) Data Transmission : 
          - Data transmission is the transfer of data from point to point often represented as an electromagnetic signal over a physical point to point or point to multipoint communication channel. 

2) Types of transmission :
          - Two types, serial & parallel transmission.

Haha..I think it enough for today, right? Ops, forgot to tell you the meaning of telecommunication. It means, let me Google it first..wait......LOADING PAGE...opening Wikipedia...ahah, found it..Ok, seriously, TELE = Far Off its means communication from a long distance between two or more peoples, if it only ONE people, that what we called, CRAZY..!!! :D LOL

Make sure it is two-ways from a distance communication, okay? 

So, that all for now, I leave all of you with a great animation video. It really great, you all should check it out. This video show the funny side of HISTORY. You gonna like it.. :D

Nice video animation, huh? :)

Friday, 2 March 2012

First Idea, First Story, First Blog Entry :)

Wazzup and morning peeps..!!

Hey, am I a blogger now? Me as a blogger, never think of seriously..since this is the first time I create a blog & obviously also the first time post an entry..I will try to make it as short as possible if I can..hehe ^^,

I never think of making my own blog, plus I also don't know what blog is, seriously..yeah, true story peeps ~ I'm just a regular kampong boy but not the Kampong Boy like the one from Dato' Lat cartoon, okay? :D

You all know this cartoon, right? :)

For this entry, I think I will not post anything about my class yet, I'm just introducing officially this blog to all of, lets make it official then, OLLA EVERYBODY..come come, have a sit and enjoy. Welcome to this blog. :D

I love my friends, classmates & my lecturers :)

So, that all for my first entry..hope you all like it :) .. later, I will try to improve this blog to be better and nice for all of you..will be adding a few gadgets and some thingy more to this blog. Until then, till we all meet in another entry, gracias me amigos  ^^,